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Trends of Fertility Levels in Egypt in Recent Years

The total fertility rate in Egypt dipped from 3.5 in 2014 to 3.1 in 2018, according to a study prepared by UNFPA, with data collected from the birth and mortality registration system implemented in collaboration between with the Ministry of Planning, Monitoring and Administrative Reform and the Ministry of Health and Population.

The system data was made available in April 2017 through the National Digital E-System, which is supervised and managed by the Ministry of Planning.

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EU Support of Egypt's National Population Strategy - One Year in Review

With the support of an EU-grant of 27 Million Euros, UNFPA, upon the request of the Government of Egypt, led the drafting process of the National Population Strategy, and is now facilitating its actual implementation with its partners including the Ministry of Health and Population.

The project is funded by the European Union and aims at increasing the use of voluntary, rights-based family planning through improved supply of family planning services and commodities, increased demand for family planning, and enhanced governance for implementation of the National Population Strategy. It will ultimately benefit Egyptians of reproductive age who will have more choices regarding the size of their families, as well as the timing and spacing of children. 

This newsletter shows the project's achievements during its first year.

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Unfinished Business: the pursuit of rights and choices for all

This year’s State of the World Population (SWOP) report comes at the 50th anniversary of the creation of UNFPA, the UN agency for sexual and reproductive health, and the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The report analyzes the progress the world has made regarding the promises of the ICPD including putting individuals in charge of their own reproductive decisions and empowering women and girls as a precondition for development. The report also identifies areas of improvement and tells stories of women who lived through the transformative decades since the promises of the ICDP were first made.

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Humanitarian Action 2019 Overview

The UNFPA Humanitarian Action Overview for 2019 showcases global priority needs for women, girls and young people affected by crisis. It also highlights UNFPA's 2018 achievements and its priorities in humanitarian work.

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Data Ecosystem Report to Enhance Sustainable Development in Egypt

Data Revolution carries many promising opportunities and capabilities that contribute to developing all life aspects and human activities on the global level. This can be achieved through a different global awareness of the role of data as a national asset; a tool to create value and wealth to enhance competitiveness, sustainability, and direct contribution to create knowledge and digital economies across the world; in addition to its particular contribution to enhance Sustainable Development Strategy 2030-SDSs that seeks to transform countries that signed the plan - 193 countries, including Egypt - into levels of more socio-economic and environmental sustainability and quality of life.

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Egypt National Report: Addis Ababa Declaration on Population and Development in Africa beyond 2014 (AADPD +5)

Assessing Egypt’s performance during past years concerning the implementation of the Addis Ababa Declaration on Population and Development demonstrates its serious commitment to take the necessary actions to create positive environment for its implementation. Both Egypt 2014 Constitution and its Sustainable Development Strategy, Egypt Vision (2030), are instrumental in supporting the adoption of these commitments. Both focus on granting equal rights to all individuals, without any discrimination of any form, and emphasize the rights for health, education and safe environment. Both documents provide the umbrella that allow formulation and adoption of a set of policies, strategies and legislations needed to strengthen the opportunity to create a supportive environment for furthering the commitments within various specified pillars. Special attention is given to youth and women to enhance their participation in various aspects and to ensure their ability to enjoy all their rights without discrimination. This is documented throughout the assessment of different commitments of the AAPDP in this report.

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Localizing the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals at Governorate Level

In 2000 the United Nations proposed the Millennium Development Goals, which were adopted by almost all countries including Egypt. Egypt has succeeded in completely achieving some of these goals, while failing to achieve others. Gender equality in primary and secondary education enrollment, as well as reducing the under-five mortality rate, increasing prenatal care coverage, and increasing the proportion of access to improved drinking water source are all goals successfully achieved by Egypt. Other goals have not been achieved due to many challenges.
In September 2015, the global community adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, which aims to improve the quality of people's lives through 17 goals. The goals are linked to a total of 169 target goals. Box 1 illustrates the SDGs.
The MDGs give some lessons learned that should be taken into account in the achievement of the SDGs. The study of the MDGs achievement at the governorate level reveals that the performance of different governorates has differed, while some have achieved their goals, others have not. This finding indicates that in order to achieve SDGs in Egypt, setting goals at the governorate level is essential. Moreover, governorates require implementation plans and periodically evaluation of their achievements.

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Egypt’s Demographic Opportunity (Preliminary Assessment based on 2017 Census)

The returns of the 2017 population, housing and establishment census indicated that the Egyptian population amounted to 94.8 million, compared to about 72.6 million in 2006. The estimated annual growth rate for the inter-censal period reached 2.56% which is above the estimated annual growth rate of 2.04% during the period 1996-2006. The data also showed no significant differences in the population distribution by urban/rural areas1 or by gender.
The demographic opportunity occurs as a result of the continuous substantial decline in fertility levels leading to changes in the age structure where a noticeable decline in the share of young people (0-14 years of age) within the total population would take place, leading to significant savings in resource allocations that can be used to enhance the skills and capacity of the relatively increasing number of people in the working age group (15-64 years). Such a situation would increase overall productivity and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita leading to better welfare for the overall population. These investments in human capital are a necessary pre-condition to benefit from the demographic opportunity and maximize the chances of a demographic dividend. It should also be supported by relevant public policies to enhance investments in various sectors and improve the business climate in order to be able to create new productive work opportunities for the expanding economically active group. These changes in the age structure are the result of a long term decline in the levels of both fertility and mortality leading to changes in the age dependency levels and indicating whether the country/governorates are approaching the opportunity for a demographic dividend. Some studies indicated that a relatively low dependency ratio of less than or equal 66% provide such locations with such opportunities.
The 2017 census provides important information about the age structure and its changes during the intercensal period 2006-2017, especially with the noticeable increase in fertility levels during these years. Such a trend goes against the wellknown established pathways for harnessing the demographic dividend and reduces women’s opportunity to participate in the labor force. It also lowers the country’s ability to achieve any savings that can enhance the level of human capital investment
in the areas of empowerment, health, education and employment, especially for young people.
Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to benefit from the newly emerged data from the 2017 census to examine the age structure and assess its potentials at the national and governorate levels, in addition to sheddingsome light on Egypt’s ability to benefit from the demographic opportunity in the near future.
To this end, both the overall demographic dependency ratio and that for young people will be examined and a preliminary demographic dividend index is to be constructed based on quantifying the main components of the proposed framework to create and earn the demographic dividend. This includes policy interventions in empowerment, education, health, economic and job creation areas to be adopted within the context of governance, accountability and political stability.
In that direction the World Economic Forum/Global Agenda Council developed a relevant approach «A 3 E Policy Framework to Reap the Demographic Dividend: Empower, Educate, Employ» which will be the focus of this paper. The data from the 2017 population census will be used to examine the current status at the national level and in various governorates (for both urban and rural areas) in comparison to the situation in 2006 when possible.

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Population Situation Analysis Egypt 2016 Report

Population Situation Analysis Report (PSA) presents an analysis for Egypt’s latest population situation. This new analysis is required, given the changes in the political, economic, social and environmental arenas occurring in the recent few years. Through UNFPA’s support, Baseera was able to analyze Egypt’s population situation in collaboration with the National Population Council (NPC) in order to pave a roadmap of solutions. 

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Population Situation Analysis Egypt 2016

new analysis for the current population situation in Egypt in 2016

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