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In 2000 the United Nations proposed the Millennium Development Goals, which were adopted by almost all countries including Egypt. Egypt has succeeded in completely achieving some of these goals, while failing to achieve others. Gender equality in primary and secondary education enrollment, as well as reducing the under-five mortality rate, increasing prenatal care coverage, and increasing the proportion of access to improved drinking water source are all goals successfully achieved by Egypt. Other goals have not been achieved due to many challenges.
In September 2015, the global community adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, which aims to improve the quality of people's lives through 17 goals. The goals are linked to a total of 169 target goals. Box 1 illustrates the SDGs.
The MDGs give some lessons learned that should be taken into account in the achievement of the SDGs. The study of the MDGs achievement at the governorate level reveals that the performance of different governorates has differed, while some have achieved their goals, others have not. This finding indicates that in order to achieve SDGs in Egypt, setting goals at the governorate level is essential. Moreover, governorates require implementation plans and periodically evaluation of their achievements.


This study aims at following up on states’ implementation of the SDGs, the United Nations has identified 232 indicators through which governments can identify the targets set for each indicator.
The aim of this study is to set quantitative targets for each indicator at the national level, as well as at the governorate level. The achievement of the goals at the national level requires, first, identifying the targets at the governorate level.
This study focuses on the following SDGs:
Goal 2: to eliminate hunger and achieve food security,
Goal 3: to ensure a healthy life for all,
Goal 4: to ensure universal access to equal opportunities in education,
Goal 5: target focuses on gender equality,
Goal 8: focuses on promoting inclusive economic growth,
Goal 16: on social justice and governance,
Goal 17: on global partnership.
A set of indicators have also been added from the Goal 1 pertaining to the eradication of poverty and for Goal 9 related to technology infrastructure.
The selection of the indicators for which the targets on governorates level depends on the availability of data for these indicators on governorates level in the baseline year.